Morphological redescription and neotype designation of Sulcospira paludiformis

In 2015, we collected fresh specimens from near the type locality to confirm the distinctiveness of the Hainan species and to unambiguously resolve its systematic placement.

Semisulcospira paludiformis, collected from Hainan Island, China, which was first collected in 1893 by a German missionary, then described by Yen in 1939. However, when compared with other Semisulcospira found there had a significant difference between them, and the type specimens of S. paludiformis were destroyed in World War II, the systematic classification of this species has remained dubious because of the lack of further study. Until 2015, the researchers collected fresh specimens from near the type locality to confirm the distinctiveness of the Hainan species and to unambiguously resolve its systematic placement.

Sulcospira paludiformis can be distinguished from them by the conspicuous inflation of the last whorl, the ovoid versus turreted shell, and shallow versus deep sutures in Sulcospira dakrongensis. Additionally, S. paludiformis can be distinguished from Sulcospira pisum by its medium (> 20 mm) versus small (< 14 mm) size.

The freshwater molluscs are increasingly threatened due to pollution and eutrophication of water bodies, habitat destruction, or introduction of invasive species.

Hainan Island is one of the highest biodiversity areas in China,However, the freshwater biodiversity of this area is poorly studied. We hope that our report will inspire further research and conservation efforts for freshwater gastropods in this area.

This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The result published as "Morphological redescription and neotype designation of Sulcospira paludiformis (Yen, 1939) from Hainan, China" on Molluscan Research。

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Species of Sulcospira from China. A, Sulcospira biconica, SMF 39078; B, Sulcospira ebenina, SMF 39077; C, Sulcospira hainanensis, SMF 38897; D, operculum of Sulcospira paludiformis, KIZ 004538; E, Sulcospira paludiformis, neotype KIZ 004537; F, Sulcospira paludiformis, IOZ-FG 240458; G, Sulcospira trivolvis, IOZ-FG 240617. (Photographs A–C: Ronald Janssen).