Phylogenetics of subtribe Orchidinae s.l. (Orchidaceae; Orchidoideae) based on seven markers (plastid matK, psaB, rbcL, trnL-F, trnH-psba, and nuclear nrITS, Xdh): implications for generic delimitation

Wei-Tao Jin1, André Schuiteman2, Mark W. Chase3,4, Jian-Wu Li5, Shih-Wen Chung6, Tian-Chuan Hsu7 and Xiao-Hua Jin1,8

1 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10093, China

8 Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS-SEABRI), Yezin, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar

Correspondence: xiaohuajin@ibcas.ac.cn

PubYear : 2017

Volume : 17

Publication Name: BMC Plant Biology

Page number :1-14

Abstract: Subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae) are a nearly cosmopolitan taxon of terrestrial orchids, comprising about 1800 species in 47 to 60 genera. Although much progress has been made in recent years of phylogenetics of Orchidinae, considerable problems remain to be addressed. Based on molecular phylogenetics, we attempt to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships and discuss generic delimitation within Orchidinae. Seven DNA markers (five plastid and two nuclear), a broad sampling of Orchidinae (400 species in 52 genera) and three methods of phylogenetic analysis (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference) were used.

Orchidinae s.l. are monophyletic. Satyrium is sister to the rest of Orchidinae s.l. Brachycorythis and Schizochilus are successive sister to Asian-European Orchidinae s.s. Sirindhornia and Shizhenia are successive sister to clade formed by Tsaiorchis-Hemipilia-Ponerorchis alliance. Stenoglottis is sister to the Habenaria-Herminium-Peristylus alliance. Habenaria, currently the largest genus in Orchidinae, is polyphyletic and split into two distant clades: one Asian-Australian and the other African–American–Asian. Diplomeris is sister to Herminium s.l. plus Asian-Australian Habenaria.

Conclusions: We propose to recognize five genera in the Ponerorchis alliance: HemipiliaPonerorchis s.l., SirindhorniaShizhenia and Tsaiorchis. Splitting Habenaria into two genera based on morphological characters and geographical distribution may be the least disruptive approach, and it is reasonable to keep Satyrium in Orchidinae.

Keywords: Gennaria, Habenaria, Orchidinae s.l., Orchid generic delimitation, Ponerorchis alliance, Platanthera